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Companies Act 1956

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Indian Companies Act 1956 13 jun 2011

[Act No. 1 OF 1956] 

PART I : PRELIMINARY Sections 1. Short title, commencement and extent 2. Definitions 2A. Interpretation of certain words and expressions 3. Definitions of "company", "existing company", "private company" and "public company" 4. Meaning of "holding company" and "subsidiary" 4A. Public financial institutions 5. Meaning of "officer who is in default" 6. Meaning of "relative" 7. Interpretation of "person in accordance with whose directions or instructions directors are accustomed to act" 8. Power of Central Government to declare an establishment not to be a branch office 9. Act to override memorandum, articles, etc. 10. Jurisdiction of courts 10A. [Omitted] 10B. [Omitted] 10C. [Omitted] 10D. [Omitted] PART IA : BOARD OF COMPANY LAW ADMINISTRATION 10E. Constitution of Board of Company Law Administration 10F. Appeals against the order of the Company Law Board 10FA. Dissolution of Company Law Board PART IB : NATIONAL COMPANY LAW TRIBUNAL 10FB. Constitution of National Company Law Tribunal 10FC. Composition of Tribunal 10FD. Qualifications for appointment of President and Members 10FE. Term of office of President and Members 10FF. Financial and administrative powers of Member Administration 10FG. Salary, allowances and other terms and conditions of service of President and other Members 10FH. Vacancy in Tribunal 10FI. Resignation of President and Member 10FJ. Removal and suspension of President or Member 10FK. Officers and employees of Tribunal 10FL. Benches of Tribunal 10FM. Order of Tribunal 10FN. Power to review 10FO. Delegation of powers 10FP. Power to seek assistance of Chief Metropolitan Magistrate and District Magistrate [PART IC : APPELLATE TRIBUNAL 10FQ. Appeal from order of Tribunal 10FR. Constitution of Appellate Tribunal 10FS. Vacancy in Appellate Tribunal, etc 10FT. Term of office of Chairperson and Members 10FU. Resignation of Chairperson and Members 10FV. Removal and suspension of Chairperson and Members of Appellate Tribunal 10FW. Salary, allowances and other terms and conditions of service of Chairperson and Members 10FX. Selection Committee 10FY. Chairperson, etc., to be public servants 10FZ. Protection of action taken in good faith 10FZA. Procedure and powers of Tribunal and Appellate Tribunal 10G. Power to punish for contempt 10GA. Staff of Appellate Tribunal 10GB. Civil court not to have jurisdiction 10GC. Vacancy in Tribunal or Appellate Tribunal not to invalidate acts or proceedings 10GD. Right to legal representation 10GE. Limitation 10GF. Appeal to Supreme Court PART II : INCORPORATION OF COMPANY AND MATTERS INCIDENTAL THERETO 11. Prohibition of associations and partnerships exceeding certain number 12. Mode of forming incorporated company 13. Requirements with respect to memorandum 14. Form of memorandum Page 2 of 332 15. Printing and signature of memorandum 15A. Special provision as to alteration of memorandum consequent on alteration of name of State of Madras 15B. Special provision as to alteration of memorandum consequent on alteration of name of State of Mysore 16. Alteration of memorandum 17. Special resolution and confirmation by Company Laws Board required for alteration of memorandum 17A. Change of registered office within a State 18. Alteration to be registered within three months 19. Effect of failure to register 20. Companies not to be registered with undesirable names 21.Change of name by company 22. Rectification of name of company 23. Registration of change of name and effect thereof 24. Change of name of existing private limited companies 25. Power to dispense with "Limited" in name of charitable or other company 26. Articles prescribing regulations 27. Regulations required in case of unlimited company, company limited by guarantee or private company limited by shares 28. Adoption and application of Table A in the case of companies limited by shares 29. Form of articles in the case of other companies 30. Form and signature of articles 31. Alteration of articles by special resolution 32. Registration of unlimited company as limited, etc. 33. Registration of memorandum and articles 34. Effect of registration 35. Conclusiveness of certificate of incorporation 36. Effect of memorandum and articles 37. Provision as to companies limited by guarantee 38. Effect of alteration in memorandum or articles 39. Copies of memorandum and articles, etc., to be given to members 40. Alteration of memorandum or articles, etc., to be noted in every copy 41. Definition of "member" 42. Membership of holding company 43.Consequences of default in complying with conditions constituting a company a private company 43A Private company to become public company in certain cases 44. Prospectus or statement in lieu of prospectus to be filed by private company on ceasing to be private company 45. Members severally liable for debts where business carried on with fewer than seven, or in the case of a private company, two members 46. Form of contracts 47. Bills of exchange and promissory notes 48. Execution of deeds 49. Investments of company to be held in its own name 50. Power for company to have official seal for use outside India 51. Service of documents on company 52. Service of documents on Registrar 53. Service of documents on members by company 54. Authentication of documents and proceedings PART III : PROSPECTUS AND ALLOTMENT, AND OTHER MATTERS RELATING TO ISSUE OF SHARES OR DEBENTURES 55. Dating of prospectus 55A. Powers of Securities and Exchange Board of India 56. Matters to be stated and reports to be set out in prospectus 57. Expert to be unconnected with formation or management of company 58. Expert's consent to issue of prospectus containing statement by him 58A. Deposits not to be invited without issuing an advertisement 58AA. Small deposits 58AAA. Default in acceptance or refund of deposits to be cognizable 58B. Provisions relating to prospectus to apply to advertisement 59. Penalty and interpretation 60. Registration of prospectus 60A. Filing of self prospectus 60B. Information memorandum 61. Terms of contract mentioned in prospectus or statement in lieu of prospectus, not to be varied 62. Civil liability for mis-statements in prospectus 63. Criminal liability for mis-statements in prospectus 64. Document containing offer of shares or debentures for sale to be deemed prospectus 65. Interpretation of provisions relating to prospectuses Page 3 of 332 66. Newspaper advertisements of prospectus 67. Construction of references to offering shares or debentures to the public, etc. 68. Penalty for fraudulently inducing persons to invest money 68A Personation for acquisition, etc., of shares 68B. Initial offer of securities to be in dematerialised form in certain cases 69. Prohibition of allotment unless minimum subscription received 70. Prohibition of allotment in certain cases unless statement in lieu of prospectus delivered to Registrar 71. Effect of irregular allotment 72. Applications for, and allotment of, shares and debentures 73. Allotment of shares and debentures to be dealt in on stock exchange 74. Manner reckoning fifth, eighth and tenth days in sections 72 and 73 75. Return as to allotments 76. Power to pay certain commissions and prohibition of payment of all other commissions, discounts, etc. 77. Restrictions on purchase by company, or loans by company for purchase, of its own or its holding company's shares 77A. Power of company to purchase its own securities. 77AA. Transfer of certain sums to capital redemption reserve account. 77B. Prohibition for buy-back in certain circumstances 78. Application of premiums received on issue of shares 79. Power to issue shares at a discount 79A. Issue of sweat equity shares 80. Power to issue redeemable preference shares 80A. Redemption of irredeemable preference shares etc. 81. Further issue of capital PART IV: SHARE CAPITAL AND DEBENTURES 82. Nature of shares 83. Numbering of shares 84. Certificate of shares 85. Two kinds of share capital 86. New issues of share capital to be only of two kinds 87. Voting rights 88. [Omitted] 89. Termination of disproportionately excessive voting rights in existing companies 90. Savings 91. Calls on shares of same class to be made on uniform basis 92. Power of company to accept unpaid share capital, although not called up 93. Payment of dividend in proportion to amount paid-up 94. Power of limited company to alter its share capital 94A.Share capital to stand increased where an order is made under section 81(4) 95. Notice to Registrar of consolidation of share capital, conversion of shares into stock, etc. 96. Effect of conversion of shares into stock 97. Notice of increase of share capital or of members 98. Power of unlimited company to provide for reserve share capital on registration 99. Reserve liability of limited company 100. Special resolution for reduction of share capital 101. Application to court for confirming order, objections by creditors, and settlement of list of objecting creditors 102. Order confirming reduction and powers of court on making such order 103. Registration of order and minute of reduction 104. Liability of members in respect of reduced shares 105. Penalty for concealing name of creditor, etc. 106. Alteration of rights of holders of special classes of shares 107. Rights of dissentient shareholders 108. Transfer not to be registered except on production of instrument of transfer 108A. Restriction on acquisition of certain shares 108B. Restriction on transfer of shares 108C. Restriction on the transfer of shares of foreign companies 108D. Power of Central Government to direct companies not to give effect to the transfer 108E. Time within which refusal to be communicated 108F. Nothing in sections 108A to 108D to apply to Government Companies, etc. 108G. Applicability of the provisions of sections 108 to 108F 108H. Construction of certain expressions used in section 108A to 108G 108I. Penalty for acquisition or transfer of share in contravention of sections 108A to 108D 109. Transfer by legal representative 109A. Nomination of shares 109B. Transmission of shares 110. Application for transfer Page 4 of 332 111. Power to refuse registration and appeal against refusal 111A. Rectification of register on transfer 112. Certification of transfers 113. Limitation of time for issue of certificates 114. Issue and effect of share warrants to bearer 115. Share warrants and entries in register of members 116. Penalty for personation of shareholder 117. Debentures with voting rights not to be issued hereafter. 117A. Debenture trust deed 117B. Appointment of debenture trustees and duties of debenture trustees 117C. Liability of company to create security and debenture redemption reserve 118. Right to obtain copies of and inspect trust deed 119. Liability of trustees for debenture-holders 120. Perpetual debentures 121. Power to re-issue redeemed debentures in certain cases 122. Specific performance of contract to subscribe for debentures 123. Payments of certain debts out of assets subject to floating charge in priority to claims under the charge PART V : REGISTRATION OF CHARGES 124. "Charge" to include mortgage in this Part 125. Certain charges to be void against liquidator or creditors unless registered 126. Date of notice of charge 127. Registration of charges on properties acquired subject to charge 128. Particulars in case of series of debentures entitling holders pan passu 129. Particulars in case of commission, etc., on debentures 130. Register of charges to be kept by Registrar 131. Index to register of charges 132. Certificate of registration 133. Endorsement of certificate of registration on debenture or certificate of debenture stock 134. Duty of company as regards registration and right of interested party 135. Provisions of Part to apply to modification of charges 136. Copy of instrument creating charge to be kept by company at registered office 137. Entry in register of charges of appointment of receiver or manager 138. Company to report satisfaction and procedure thereafter 139. Power of Registrar to make entries of satisfaction and release in absence of intimation from company 140. Copy of memorandum of satisfaction to be furnished to company 141. Rectification by Company Law Board of register of charges 142. Penalties 143. Company's register of charges 144. Right to inspect copies of instruments creating charges and company's register of charges 145. Application of Part to charges requiring registration under it but not under previous law PART VI : MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION CHAPTER 1 : GENERAL PROVISIONS REGISTERED OFFICE AND NAME 146. Registered office of company 147. Publication of name by company 148. Publication of authorised as well as subscribed and paid-up capital 149. Restrictions on commencement of business 150. Register of members 151. Index of members 152. Register and index of debenture-holders 152A. Register and index of beneficial owners to be of debenture-holders 153. Trusts not to be entered on register 153A. Appointment of public trustee 153B. Declaration as to shares and debentures held in trust 154. Power to close register of members or debenture-holders 155. [Omitted] 156. [Omitted] 157. Power for company to keep foreign register of members or debenture-holders 158. Provisions as to foreign registers 159. Annual return to be made by company having a share capital 160. Annual return to be made by company not having a share capital 161. Further provisions regarding annual return and certificate to be annexed thereto 162. Penalty and interpretation 163. Place of keeping and inspection of, registers and returns 164. Registers, etc., to be evidence 165. Statutory meeting and statutory report of company 166. Annual general meeting Page 5 of 332 167. Power of Company Law Board to call annual general meeting 168. Penalty for default in complying with section 166 or 167 169. Calling of extraordinary general meeting on requisition 170. Sections 171 to 186 to apply to meetings 171. Length of notice for calling meeting 172. Contents and manner of service of notice and persons on whom it is to be served 173. Explanatory statement to be annexed to notice 174. Quorum for meeting 175. Chairman of meeting 176. Proxies 177. Voting to be by show of hands in first instance 178. Chairman's declaration of result of voting by show of hands to be conclusive 179. Demand for poll 180. Time of taking poll 181. Restriction on exercise of voting right of members who have not paid calls, etc. 182. Restrictions on exercise of voting right in other cases to be void 183. Right of member to use his votes differently 184. Scrutineers at poll 185. Manner of taking poll and result thereof 186. Power of Company Law Board to order meeting to be called 187. Representation of corporations at meetings of companies and of "creditors 187A. Representation of the President and Governors in meetings of companies of which they are members 187B. Exercise of voting rights in respect of shares held in trust 187C. Declaration by persons not holding beneficial interest in any share 187D. Investigation of beneficial ownership of shares in certain cases 188. Circulation of members' resolutions 189. Ordinary and special resolutions 190. Resolutions requiring special notice 191. Resolutions passed at adjourned meetings 192. Registration of certain resolutions and agreements 192A. Passing of resolution by postal ballot 193. Minutes of proceedings of general meetings and of Board and other meetings 194. Minutes to be evidence 195. Presumptions to be drawn where minutes duly drawn and signed 196. Inspection of minute books of general meetings 197. Publication of reports of proceedings of general meetings 197A. Company not to appoint or employ certain different categories of managerial personnel at the same time 198. Overall maximum managerial remuneration and managerial remuneration in case of absence or inadequacy of profits 199. Calculation of commission, etc., in certain cases\ 200. Prohibition of tax-free payments 201. Avoidance of provisions relieving liability of officers and auditors of company 202. Undischarged insolvent not to manage companies 203. Power to restrain fraudulent persons from managing companies 204. Restriction on appointment of firm or body corporate to office or place of profit under a company 204A. [Omitted] 205. Dividend to be paid only out of profits 205A. Unpaid dividend to be transferred to special dividend account 205B. Payment of unpaid or unclaimed dividend 205C. Establishment of Investor Education and Protection Fund 206. Dividend not to be paid except to registered share-holders or to their order or to their bankers 206A. Right to dividend rights, rights shares and bonus shares to be held in abeyance pending registration of transfer of shares 207. Penalty for failure to distribute dividends within thirty days 208. Power of company to pay interest out of capital in certain cases 209. Books of account to be kept by company 209 A. Inspection of books of accounts, etc. of companies 210. Annual accounts and balance-sheet 210A. Constitution of National Advisory Committee on Accounting Standards 211. Form and contents of balance-sheet and profit and loss account 212. Balance-sheet of holding company to include certain particulars as to its subsidiaries 213. Financial year of holding company and subsidiary 214. Rights of holding company's representatives and members 215. Authentication of balance-sheet and profit and loss account 216. Profit and loss account to be annexed and auditors' report to be attached to balance-sheet 217. Board's report Page 6 of 332 218. Penalty for improper issue, circulation or publication of balance-sheet or profit and loss account 219. Right of member to copies of balance-sheet and auditors' report 220. Three copies of balance-sheet, etc., to be filed with Registrar 221. Duty of officer to make disclosure of payments, etc. 222. Construction of references to documents annexed to accounts 223. Certain companies to publish statement in the Form in Table F in Schedule I 224. Appointment and remuneration of auditors 224A. Auditor not to be appointed except with the approval of the company by special resolution in certain cases 225. Provisions as to resolutions for appointing or removing auditors 226. Qualifications and disqualifications of auditors 227. Powers and duties of auditors 228. Audit of accounts of branch office of company 229. Signature of audit report, etc. 230. Reading and inspection of auditor's report 231. Right of auditor to attend general meeting 232. Penalty for non-compliance with sections 225 to 231. 233. Penalty for non-compliance by auditor with sections 227 and 229 233A. Power of Central Government to direct special audit in certain cases 233B. Audit of cost accounts in certain cases 234. Power of Registrar to call for information or explanation 234A. Seizure of documents by Registrar 235. Investigation of affairs of a company 236. Application by members to be supported by evidence and power of call for security 237. Investigation of company's affairs in other cases 238. Firm, body corporate or association not to be appointed as inspector 239. Power of inspectors to carry investigation into affairs of related companies, or of managing agent or associate etc. 240. Production of documents and evidence 240A. Seizure of documents by inspector 241. Inspectors' report 242. Prosecution 243. Application for winding up of company or an order under section 397 or 398 244. Proceedings for recovery of damages or property 245. Expenses of investigation 246. Inspectors' report to be evidence 247. Investigation of ownership of company 248. [Omitted] 249. [Omitted] 250. Imposition of restrictions upon shares and debentures and prohibition of transfer of shares or debentures in certain cases 250A. Voluntary winding up of company, etc., not to stop investigation proceedings 251. Saving for legal advisers and bankers CHAPTER II : DIRECTORS 252. Minimum number of directors 253. Only individuals to be directors 254. Subscribers of memorandum deemed to be directors 255. Appointment of directors and proportion of those who are to retire by rotation 256. Ascertainment of directors retiring by rotation and filling of vacancies 257. Right of persons other than retiring directors to stand for directorship 258. Right of company to increase or reduce the number of directors 259. Increase in number of directors to require Government sanction 260. Additional directors 261. [Omitted] 262. Filling of casual vacancies among directors 263. Appointment of directors to be voted on individually 263A. Sections 177, 255, 256 and 263 not to apply in relation to companies not carrying business for profit, etc. 264. Consent of candidate for directorship to be filed with the company and consent to act as director to be filed with the Registrar 265. Option to company to adopt proportional representation for the appointment of directors 266. Restrictions on appointment or advertisement of director 267. Certain persons not to be appointed managing directors 268. Amendment of provision relating to managing, whole-time or non-rotational directors to require Government approval 269. Appointment of managing or whole-time director or manager to require Government approval only in certain cases 270. Time within which share qualification is to be obtained and maximum amount thereof Page 7 of 332 271. [Omitted] 272. Penalty 273. Saving 274. Disqualifications of directors 275. No person to be a director of more than fifteen companies 276. Choice to be made by director of more than fifteen companies at commencement of Act 277. Choice by person becoming director of more than fifteen companies after commencement of Act 278. Exclusion of certain directorships for the purposes of sections 275, 276 and 277 279. Penalty 280. [Omitted] 281. [Omitted] 282. [Omitted] 283. Vacation of office by directors 284. Removal of directors 285. Board to meet at least once in every three calendar months 286. Notice of meetings 287. Quorum for meetings 288. Procedure where meeting adjourned for want of quorum 289. Passing of resolutions by circulation 290. Validity of acts of directors 291. General powers of Board 292. Certain powers to be exercised by Board only at meeting 292A. Audit Committee 293. Restrictions on powers of Board 293A. Prohibitions and restrictions regarding 293B. Power of Board and other persons to make contributions to the National Defence Fund, etc. 294. Appointment of sole selling agents to require approval of company in general meeting 294A. Prohibition of payment of compensation to sole selling agents for loss of office in certain cases 294AA. Power of Central Government to prohibit the appointment of sole selling agents in certain cases 295. Loans to directors, etc. 296. Application of section 295 to book debts in certain cases 297. Board's sanction to be required for certain contracts in which particular directors are interested 298. [Omitted] 299. Disclosure of interests by director 300. Interested director not to participate or vote in Board's proceedings 301. Register of contracts, companies and firms in which directors are interested 302. Disclosure to members of director's interest in contract appointing manager, managing director 303.Register of directors, etc. 304.Inspection of the register 305.Duty of directors, etc., to make disclosure 306.Register to be kept by Registrar and inspection thereof 307.Register of directors' shareholdings, etc. 308.Duty of directors and persons deemed to be directors to make disclosure of shareholdings 309. Remuneration of directors 310. Provision for increase in remuneration to require Government sanction 311. Increase in remuneration of managing director on reappointment or appointment after Act to require Government sanction 312. Prohibition of assignment of office by directors 313. Appointment and term of office of alternate directors 314. Director, etc. not to hold office or place of profit 315. [Omitted] 316. Number of companies of which one person may be appointed managing director 317. Managing director not to be appointed for more than five years at a time 318. Compensation for loss of office not permissible except to managing or whole-time directors or to directors who are managers 319. Payment to director, etc., for loss of office, etc., in connection with transfer of undertaking of property 320. Payment to director for loss of office, etc., in connection with transfer of shares 321. Provisions supplementary to sections 318, 319 and 320 322. Directors, etc., with unlimited liability in limited company 323. Special resolution of limited company making liability of directors, etc., unlimited CHAPTER III : MANAGING AGENTS 324 to 347. [Omitted] 348. [Omitted] 349. Determination of net profits 350. Ascertainment of depreciation 351. [Omitted] Page 8 of 332 352. [Omitted] 353. [Omitted] 354. [Omitted] 355. Saving 356 to 367. [Omitted] 368. [Omitted] 369. [Omitted] 370. Loans, etc., to companies under the same management 370A. Provisions as to certain loans which could not have been made if sections 369 and 370 were in force 371. Penalty for contravention of section 369, 370 or 370A 372. Purchase by company of shares, etc., of other companies 372A. Inter-corporate loans and investments 373. Investments made before commencement of Act 374. Penalty for contravention of section 372 or 373 375. [Omitted] 376. Conditions prohibiting reconstruction or amalgamation of company 377. [Omitted] CHAPTER IV : A. SECRETARIES AND TREASURERS 378. [Omitted] 379. [Omitted] 380. [Omitted] 381. [Omitted] 382. [Omitted] 383. [Omitted] 383A. Certain companies to have secretaries 384. Firm or body corporate not to be appointed manager 385. Certain persons not to be appointed managers 386. Number of companies of which a person may be appointed manager 387. Remuneration of manager 388. Application of sections 269, 310, 311, 312 and 317 to managers 388A. Sections 386 to 388 not to apply to certain private companies CHAPTER IV A : POWERS OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT TO REMOVE MANAGERIAL PERSONNEL FROM OFFICE ON THE RECOMMENDATION OF THE COMPANY LAW BOARD 388B. Reference to Company Law Board of cases against managerial personnel 388C. Interim order by Company Law Board 388D. Decisions of the Company Law Board 388E. Power of Central Government to remove managerial personnel on the basis of Company Law Board's decision CHAPTER V : ARBITRATIONS, COMPROMISES, ARRANGEMENTS AND RECONSTRUCTIONS 389. [Omitted] 390. Interpretation of sections 391 and 393 391. Power to compromise or make arrangements with creditors and members 392. Power of High Court to enforce compromises and arrangements 393. Information as to compromises or arrangements with creditors and members 394. Provisions for facilitating reconstruction and amalgamation of companies 394A. Notice to be given to Central Government for applications under sections 391 and 394 395. Power and duty to acquire shares of shareholders dissenting from scheme or contract approved by majority 396. Power of Central Government to provide for amalgamation of companies in public interest 396A. Preservation of books and papers of amalgamated company CHAPTER VI : PREVENTION OF OPPRESSION AND MISMANAGEMENT 397. Application to Company Law Board for relief in cases of oppression 398. Application to Company Law Board for relief in cases of mismanagement 399. Right to apply under sections 397 and 398 400. Notice to be given to Central Government of applications under sections 397 and 398 401. Right of Central Government to apply under sections 397 and 398 402. Powers of Company Law Board on application under sections 397 or 398 403. Interim order by Company Law Board 404. Effect of alteration of memorandum or articles of company by order under section 397 or 398 405. Addition of respondents to application under section 397 or 398 406. Application of sections 539 to 544 to proceedings under sections 397 and 398 407. Consequences of termination or modification of certain agreements B Powers of central government 408. Powers of Government to prevent oppression or mismanagement 409. Power of Company Law Board to prevent change in Board of directors likely to affect company prejudicially CHAPTER VII : CONSTITUTION AND POWERS OF ADVISORY COMMITTEE 410. Appointment of Advisory Committee 411. [Omitted] 412. [Omitted] Page 9 of 332 413. [Omitted] 414. [Omitted] 415. [Omitted] CHAPTER VIII : MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 416. Contracts by agents of company in which company is undisclosed principal 417. Employees' securities to be deposited in post office savings bank or Scheduled Bank 418. Provisions applicable to provident funds of employees 419. Right of employee to see bank's receipt for moneys or securities referred to in section 417 or 418 420. Penalty for contravention of sections 417, 418 and 419 421. Filing of accounts of receivers 422. Invoices, etc., to refer to receiver where there is one 423. Penalty for non-compliance with sections 421 and 422 424. Application of sections 421 to 423 to receivers and managers appointed by court and managers appointed in pursuance of an instrument PART VIA : REVIVAL AND REHABILITATION OF SICK INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES 424A. Reference to Tribunal 424B. Inquiry into working of sick industrial companies 424C. Powers of Tribunal to make suitable order on completion of inquiry 424D. Preparation and sanction of schemes 424E. Rehabilitation by giving financial assistance 424F. Arrangement for continuing operations, etc., during inquiry 424G. Winding up of sick industrial company 424H. Operating agency to prepare complete inventory, etc 424-I. Direction not to dispose of assets 424J. Power of Tribunal to call for periodic information 424K. Misfeasance proceedings 424L. Penalty for certain offences PART VII : WINDING UP CHAPTER I : PRELIMINARY 425. Modes of winding up 426. Liability as contributories of present and past members 427. Obligations of directors and managers whose liability is unlimited 428. Definition of "contributory" 429. Nature of liability of contributory 430. Contributories in case of death of member 431. Contributories in case of insolvency of member 432. Contributories in case of winding up of a body corporate which is a member CHAPTER II : WINDING UP BY THE COURT 433.Circumstances in which company may be wound up by court 434. Company when deemed unable to pay its debts 435. [Omitted] 436. [Omitted] 437. [Omitted] 438. [Omitted] 438. [Omitted] 439. Provisions as to applications for winding up 439A. Statement of affairs to the filed o winding up of a company 440. Right to present winding up petition where company is being wound up voluntarily or subject to court's supervision 441. Commencement of winding up by Court 441A. Levy and collection of cess on turnover or gross receipts of companies 441B. Crediting proceeds of cess to Consolidated Fund of India 441C. Rehabilitation Fund 441D. Application of Fund 441E. Power to call for information 441F. Penalty for non-payment of cess 441G. Refund of fund in certain cases 442. [Omitted] 443. Powers of Tribunal on hearing petition 444. Order for winding up to be communicated to Official Liquidator and Registrar 445. Copy of winding up order to be filed with Registrar 446. Suits stayed on winding up order 446A. Responsibility of directors and officers to submit to Tribunal audited books and accounts 447. Effect of winding up order 448. Appointment of Official Liquidator 449. Official Liquidator to be liquidator Page 10 of 332 450. Appointment and powers of provisional liquidator 451. General Provisions as to liquidators 452. Style, etc., of liquidator 453.Receiver not to be appointed of assets with liquidator 454. Statement of affairs to be made to Official Liquidator 455. Report by Official Liquidator 456. Custody of company's property 457. Powers of liquidator 458. Discretion of liquidator 458A. Exclusion of certain time in computing periods of limitation 459. Provision for legal assistance to liquidator 460. Exercise and control of liquidator's powers 461. Books to be kept by liquidator 462. Audit of liquidator's accounts 463. Control of Central Government over liquidators 464. Appointment and Composition of committee of inspection 465. Constitution and proceedings of committee of inspection 466. Power of court to stay winding up 467. Settlement of list of contributories and application of assets 468.Delivery of property to liquidator 469. Payment of debts due by contributory and extent of set-off 470. Power of court to make calls 471. Payment into bank of moneys due to company 472. Moneys and securities paid into Bank to be subject to order of court 473. Order on contributory to be conclusive evidence 474. Power to exclude creditors not proving in time 475. Adjustment of rights of contributories 476. Power to order costs 477. Power to summon persons suspected of having property of company, etc. 478. Power to order public examination of promoters, directors, etc. 479. Power to arrest absconding contributory 480. Saving of existing powers of court 481. Dissolution of company 482. Order made in any court to be enforced by other courts 483. Appeals from orders CHAPTER III : VOLUNTARY WINDING UP 484. Circumstances in which company may be wound up voluntarily 485. Publication of resolution to wind up voluntarily 486. Commencement of voluntary winding up 487. Effect of voluntary winding up on status of company 488. Declaration of solvency in case of proposal to wind up voluntarily Provisions applicable to a members' voluntary winding up 489. Provisions applicable to a members' voluntary winding up 490. Power of company to appoint and fix remuneration of liquidators 491. Board's powers to cease on appointment of liquidator 492. Power to fill vacancy in office of liquidator 493. Notice of appointment of liquidator to be given to Registrar 494. Power of liquidator to accept shares, etc., as consideration for sale of property of company 495. Duty of liquidator to call creditors' meeting in case of insolvency 496. Duty of liquidator to call general meeting at end of each year 497. Final meeting and dissolution 498. Alternative provisions as to annual and final meetings in case of insolvency 499. Provisions applicable to a creditors' voluntary winding up 500. Meeting of creditors 501. Notice of resolutions passed by creditors' meeting to be given to Registrar 502. Appointment of liquidator 503. Appointment of committee of inspection 504. Fixing of liquidators' remuneration 505. Board's powers to cease on appointment of liquidator 506. Power to fill vacancy in office of liquidator 507. Application of section 494 to a creditors' voluntary winding up 508. Duty of liquidator to call meetings of company and of creditors at end of each year 509. Final meeting and dissolution 510. Provisions applicable to every voluntary winding up 511. Distribution of property of company 511A. Application of section 454 to voluntary winding up Page 11 of 332 512. Powers and duties of liquidator in voluntary winding up 513. Body corporate not to be appointed as liquidator 514. Corrupt inducement affecting appointment as liquidator 515. Power of court to appoint and remove liquidator in voluntary winding up 516. Notice by liquidator of his appointment 517. Arrangement when binding on company and creditors 518. Power to apply to court to have questions determined or powers exercised 519. Application of liquidator to court for public examination of promoters, directors, etc. 520. Costs of voluntary winding up 521. [Omitted] CHAPTER IV : WINDING UP SUBJECT TO SUPERVISION OF COURT 522 to 527. [Omitted] CHAPTER V: PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO EVERY MODE OF WINDING UP 528. Debts of all descriptions to be admitted to proof 529. Application of insolvency rules in winding up of insolvent companies. 529A. Overriding preferential payment 530. Preferential payments 531. Fraudulent preference 531A. Avoidance of voluntary transfer 532. Transfers for benefit of all creditors to be void 533. Liabilities and rights of certain fraudulently preferred persons 534. Effect of floating charge 535. Disclaimer of onerous property in case of a company which is being wound up 536. Avoidance of transfers, etc., after commencement of winding up 537. Avoidance of certain attachments, executions, etc., in winding up by or subject to supervision of court 538. Offences by officers of companies in liquidation 539. Penalty for falsification of books 540. Penalty for frauds by officers 541. Liability where proper accounts not kept 542. Liability for fraudulent conduct of business 543. Power of court to assess damages against delinquent directors, etc 544. Liability under sections 542 and 543 to extend to partners or directors in firm or company 545. Prosecution of delinquent officers and members of company 546. Liquidator to exercise certain powers subject to sanction 547. Notification that a company is in liquidation 548. Books and papers of company to be evidence 549. Inspection of books and papers by creditors and contributories 550. Disposal of books and papers of company 551. Information as to pending liquidations 552. Official Liquidator to make payments into the public account of India 553. Voluntary liquidator to make payments into Scheduled Bank 554. Liquidator not to pay moneys into private banking account 555. Unpaid dividends and undistributed assets to be paid into the Companies Liquidation Account 556. Enforcement of duty of liquidator to make returns, etc. Supplementary powers of court 557. Meetings to ascertain wishes of creditors or contributories 558. Court or person before whom affidavit may be sworn 559. Power of court to declare dissolution of company void 560. Power of Registrar to strike defunct company off register PART VIII : APPLICATION OF ACT TO COMPANIES FORMED OR REGISTERE UNDER PREVIOUS COMPANIES LAWS 561. Application of Act to companies formed and registered under previous companies laws 562. Application of Act to companies registered but not formed under previous companies laws 563. Application of Act to unlimited companies re-registered under previous companies laws 564. Mode of transferring shares in the case of companies registered under Acts 19 of 1857 and 7 of 1860. PART IX : COMPANIES AUTHORISED TO REGISTER UNDER THIS ACT 565. Companies capable of being registered 566. Definition of "joint-stock company" 567. Requirements for registration of joint-stock companies 568. Requirements for registration of companies not being "joint-stock companies" 569. Authentication of statements of existing companies 570. Power of Registrar to require evidence as to nature of company 571. Notice to customers on registration of banking company with limited liability 572. Change of name for purposes of registration 573. Addition of "Limited" or "Private Limited" to name 574. Certificate of registration of existing companies 575. Vesting of property on registration Page 12 of 332 576. Saving for existing liabilities 577. Continuation of pending legal proceedings 578. Effect of registration under Part 579. Power to substitute memorandum and articles for deed of settlement 580. Power of court to stay or restrain proceedings 581. Suits stayed on winding up order PART IXA CHAPTER I : PRODUCER COMPANIES 581A. Definitions CHAPTER II : INCORPORATION OF PRODUCER COMPANIES AND OTHER MATTERS 581B. Objects of Producer Company 581C. Formation of Producer Company and its registration 581D. Membership and voting rights of Members of Producer Company 581E. Benefits to Members 581F. Memorandum of Producer Company 581G. Articles of association 581H. Amendment of memorandum 581-I. Amendment of articles 581J. Option to inter-State co-operative societies to become Producer Companies 581K. Effect of incorporation of Producer Company 581L. Vesting of undertaking in Producer Company 581M. Concession, etc., to be deemed to have been granted to Producer Company 581N. Provisions in respect of officers and other employees of inter-State co-operative society CHAPTER III: MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCER COMPANY 581O. Number of directors 581P. Appointment of directors 581Q. Vacation of office by directors 581R. Powers and functions of Board 581S. Matters to be transacted at general meeting 581T. Liability of directors 581U. Committee of directors 581V. Meetings of Board and quorum 581W. Chief Executive and his function 581X. Secretary of Producer Company 581Y. Quorum 581Z. Voting rights CHAPTER IV: GENERAL MEETINGS 581ZA. Annual general meetings CHAPTER V: SHARE CAPITAL AND MEMBERS RIGHTS 581ZB. Share capital 581ZC. Special user rights 581ZD. Transferability of shares and attendant rights CHAPTER VI: FINANCE, ACCOUNTS AND AUDIT 581ZE. Books of account 581ZF. Internal audit 581ZG. Duties of auditor under this Part 581ZH. Donations or subscription by Producer Company 581ZI. General and other reserves 581ZJ. Issue of bonus shares CHAPTER VII: LOANS TO MEMBERS AND INVESTMENTS 581ZK. Loan, etc., to members 581ZL. Investment in other companies, formation of subsidiaries, etc CHAPTER VIII: PENALTIES 581ZM. Penalty for contravention CHAPTER IX: AMALGAMATION, MERGER OR DIVISION 581ZN. Amalgamation, merger or division, etc., to form new Producer Companies CHAPTER X: RESOLUTION OF DISPUTES 581ZO. Disputes CHAPTER XI: MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 581ZP. Strike off name of Producer Company 581ZQ. Provisions of this Part to override other laws 581ZR. Application of provisions relating to private companies CHAPTER XII: RECONVERSION OF PRODUCER COMPANY TO INTER-STATE CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY 581ZS. Reconversion of Producer Company to inter-State co-operative society 581ZT. Power to modify Act in its application to Producer Companies PART X : WINDING UP OF UNREGISTERED COMPANIES Page 13 of 332 582. Meaning of "unregistered company" 583. Winding up of unregistered companies 584. Power to wind up foreign companies, although dissolved 585. Contributories in winding up of unregistered company 586. Power to stay or restrain proceedings 587. Suits, etc., stayed on winding up order 588. Directions as to property in certain cases 589. Provisions of Part cumulative 590. Saving and construction of enactments conferring power to wind up partnership, association or company in certain cases PART XI : COMPANIES INCORPORATED OUTSIDE INDIA 591. Application of sections 592 to 602 to foreign companies 592. Documents, etc., to be delivered to Registrar by foreign companies carrying on business in India 593. Return to be delivered to Registrar by foreign company where documents, etc., altered 594. Accounts of foreign company 595. Obligation to state name of foreign company, whether limited, and country where incorporated 596. Service on foreign company 597. Office where documents to be delivered 598. Penalties 599. Company's failure to comply with Part not to affect its liability under contracts, etc. 600. Registration of charges, appointment of receiver and books of account 601. Fees for registration of documents under Part 602. Interpretation of foregoing sections of Part Prospectuses 603. Dating of prospectus and particulars to be contained therein 604. Provisions as to expert's consent and allotment 605. Registration of prospectus 605A. Offer of Indian Depository Receipts 606. Penalty for contravention of sections 603, 604 and 605. 607. Civil liability for mis-statements in prospectus 608. Interpretation of provisions as to prospectuses PART XII : REGISTRATION OFFICES AND OFFICERS AND FEES 609. Registration Offices 610. Inspection, production and evidence of documents kept by Registrar 610A. Admissibility of micro films, facsimile copies of documents,computer printouts and documents on computer media as documents and as evidence 611. Fees in Schedule X to be paid 612. Fees, etc., paid to Registrar and other officers to be accounted for to Central Government 613. Power of Central Government to reduce fees, charges, etc. 614. Enforcement of duty of company to make returns, etc., to Registrar 614A. Power of court trying offences under the Act to direct the filing of documents with Registrar PART XIII : GENERAL 615. "Power of Central Government to direct companies to furnish information or statisties 616. Application of Act to insurance, banking, electricity supply and other companies governed by special Acts 617. Definition of "Government Company" 618. [Omitted] 619. Application of sections 224 to 233 to Government companies 619A. Annual reports on Government companies 619B. Provisions of section 619 to apply to certain companies 620. Power to modify Act in relation to Government companies 620A. Power to modify Act in its application to Nidhis, etc. 620B. Special provision as to companies in Goa, Daman and Diu 620C. Special provision as to companies in Jammu and Kashmir 621. Offences against Act to be cognizable only on complaint by Registrar, shareholder of Government 621A. Composition of certain offences 622. Jurisdiction to try offences 623. Certain offences, triable summarily in Presidency towns 624. Offences to be non-cognizable 624A. Power of Central Government to appoint company prosecutors 624B. Appeal against acquittal 625. Payment of compensation in cases of frivolous or vexatious prosecution 626. Application of fines 627. Production and inspection of books where offence suspected 628. Penalty for false statements 629. Penalty for false evidence 629A. Penalty where no specific penalty is provided elsewhere in the Act 630. Penalty for wrongful withholding of property Page 14 of 332 631. Penalty for improper use of words "Limited" and "Private Limited" 632. Power to require limited company to give security for costs 633. Power of court to grant relief in certain cases 634. Enforcement of orders of courts 634A. Enforcement of orders of Company Law Board 635. Enforcement of orders of one court by other courts 635A. Protection of acts done in good faith 635AA. Non-disclosure of information in certain cases 635B. Protection of employees during investigation by Inspector or pendency of proceeding before court in certain cases 636. Reduction of fees, charges, etc., payable to company 637. Delegation by Central Government of its powers and fs under Act 637A. Power of Central Government or Company Law Board to accord approval, etc., subject to conditions and to prescribe fees on applications 637AA. Power of Central Government to fix a limit with regard to remuneration 637B. Condonation of delays in certain cases 638. Annual report by Central Government 639. [Omitted] 640. Validation of registration of firms as members of charitable and other companies 640A. Exclusion of time required in obtaining copies of orders of Court or the Tribunal 640B. Forms of, and procedure in relation to, certain applications 641. Power to alter Schedules 642. Power of Central Government to make rules 643. Power of Supreme Court to make rules 644. Repeal of Acts specified in Schedule XII 645. Saving of orders, rules, etc., in force at commencement of Act 646. Saving of operation of section 138 of Act 7 of 1913 647. Saving of pending proceedings for winding up 647A. Transfer of winding up proceedings to Tribunal 648. Saving of prosecutions instituted by liquidator or court under section 237 of Act 7 of 1913. 649. Construction of references to former enactments in documents 650.Construction of "Registrar of joint stock companies" in Act 21 of 1860 [Omitted] 651. Construction of references to extraordinary resolution in articles, etc. 651A. Reference of winding up of companies in other laws 652. Appointment under previous companies laws to have effect as if made under Act 653. Former registration offices continued 654. Registers under previous companies laws to be deemed to be part of registers under Act 655. Funds and accounts under Act to be in continuation of funds and accounts under previous companies taw 656. Saving of incorporation under repealed Acts 657. Saving of certain Tables under previous companies laws 658. Section 6 of the General Clauses Act, 1897 (10 of 1897) to apply in addition to sections 645 to 657 of Act SCHEDULES I SCHEDULES IA SCHEDULES II SCHEDULES III SCHEDULES IV SCHEDULES V SCHEDULES VI SCHEDULES VII SCHEDULES VIII SCHEDULES IX SCHEDULES X SCHEDULES XI SCHEDULES XII SCHEDULES XIII SCHEDULES XIV SCHEDULES XV

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