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Botany : Entrance Exam Study Material

   Added On :  11.04.2016 01:38 pm
   For :  Entrance Exam

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Botany : Entrance Exam Study Material

 

PART -1

 

UNIT I. BIODIVERSITY

 

Taxonomy and Phylogeny -- -    - Key Answer
Two Kingdom System of Classification -- -    - Key Answer
The Five Kingdom System of Classification -- -    - Key Answer
Viruses - Introduction And General characteristics -- -    - Key Answer
Viruses : Size, Shape And Structure of a Virus -- -    - Key Answer
Classification of virus -- -    - Key Answer
Lytic and Lysogenic Life cycle of a phage -- -    - Key Answer
Plant viral disease : Bunchy top of banana, HIV, cancer, SARS Virion -- -    - Key Answer
A new disease called SARS Virion -- -    - Key Answer
Bacteria : Introduction, Occurrence, Size -- -    - Key Answer
Classification of bacteria based on the shape and arrangement -- -    - Key Answer
Flagellation in Bacteria -- -    - Key Answer
Nutrition in Plant Bacteria -- -    - Key Answer
Respiration in Plant Bacteria -- -    - Key Answer
Reproduction of Bacteria -- -    - Key Answer
Harmful activities of Bacteria in Plants, Animal, Human beings -- -    - Key Answer
Beneficial Activities of Bacteria -- -    - Key Answer
Fungi : Salient and Distinguishing Features, Structure, Nutrition, Saprotrophs -- -    - Key Answer
Fungai : Saprotrophs and Parasites -- -    - Key Answer
Fungi Symbiosis -- -    - Key Answer
Classification of Fungi -- -    - Key Answer
Economic importance of Fungi : Useful and Harmful aspects of fungi -- -    - Key Answer
Mucor : Occurrence, Reproduction, Somatic structure -- -    - Key Answer
Algae : Salient Features, Occurrence and Distribution, Thallus organization -- -    - Key Answer
Algae : Cell Structure & Pigmentation -- -    - Key Answer
Algea : Arranagement of Flagella -- -    - Key Answer
Algea Reproduction : 1. Vegetative 2. Asexual 3. Sexual -- -    - Key Answer
Classification of Algea -- -    - Key Answer
Economic Importance of Algae - Food, Agriculture, Industry, space travel, Single cell protein, Sewage Disposal -- -   - Key Answer
Harmful effects of Algae -- -    - Key Answer
Spirogyra : Detail, Occurrence, Structure -- -    - Key Answer
Algea : Reproduction -- -    - Key Answer
Bryophytes : Salient and Distinguishing features of Bryophytes -- -    - Key Answer
Bryophytes : Alternation of Generations -- -    - Key Answer
Classification of Bryophyta -- -    - Key Answer
Riccia And The structure of mature gametophyte -- -    - Key Answer
Reproduction of Riccia -- -    - Key Answer
Riccia - Fertilization, Sporophyte Generation -- -    - Key Answer
Life cycle of Riccia -- -    - Key Answer
Pteridophytes : Salient features and Salient features -- -    - Key Answer
Characteristics of Pteridophytes and Economic importance -- -    - Key Answer
Morphology of sporophyte -- -    - Key Answer
Anatomy of Nephrolepsis -- -    - Key Answer
Reproduction of Nephrolepsis -- -    - Key Answer
Nephrolepsis : Fertilization -- -    - Key Answer
Classification and Characteristic of Spermatophytes(Gymnosperms) -- -    - Key Answer
Salient features and Distinguishing features of Gymnosperms -- -    - Key Answer
Cycas - Morphology of sporophyte -- -    - Key Answer
Anatomy of Cycas -- -    - Key Answer
Cycas - Reproduction -- -    - Key Answer


UNIT II.      CELL BIOLOGY

 

A brief history about the discovery of cells -- -    - Key Answer
Dynamic nature of cell , Difference Between Plant Cell And Animal cell -- -    - Key Answer
Development of Cell Theory And Exception to cell Theory -- -    - Key Answer
prokaryotic cell And Ultra structure of a prokaryotic cell -- -    - Key Answer
Eukaryotes -- -    - Key Answer
Different Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell (Plant Cells) -- -    - Key Answer
Light Microscope and Electron Microscope (TEM - Transmission Electron Microscopy & SEM - Scanning Electron Microscope ) -- -    - Key Answer
Formation of the cell wall -- -    - Key Answer
Structure of the cell wall -- -    - Key Answer
Plasmodesmata, pits and Functions of cell wall -- -    - Key Answer
Ultra structure of the cell membrane - Fluid mosaic Model, Lipids, Proteins -- -    - Key Answer
Functions of plasma membrane -- -    - Key Answer
Cell Membrane Transport -- -    - Key Answer
List of Plant Cell Organelles -- -    - Key Answer
Plant Cell Nucleus And Functions of Plant Cell Nucleus -- -    - Key Answer
Plant Cell Mitochondria - Power house of the cell -- -    - Key Answer
Plant Cell Plastids - chloroplasts, chromoplasts and leucoplasts -- -    - Key Answer
Plant Cell : Ribosomes -- -    - Key Answer
Plant Cell Division - Cell Cycle 1.Amitosis 2.Mitosis 3. Meiosis -- -    - Key Answer
Cell Division - Mitotic cell cycle : 1.Prophase 2. Metaphase 3.Anaphase 4. Telophase -- -    - Key Answer
Cell Division - Meiosis Cell Cycle : Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase -- -    - Key Answer

UNIT III.     PLANT MORPHOLOGY

 

Morphology of flowering plants or Angiosperms - short notes -- -    - Key Answer
Plant - Root System : Regions of a typical root and General Characteristic features of the root -- -    - Key Answer
Types of Root System And Functions of roots -- -    - Key Answer
Root Modifications for Taproot, adventitious roots -- -    - Key Answer
Characteristic features and Functions of the stem -- -    - Key Answer
Modifications of stem : 1. Aerial modifications 2. Sub aerial modifications 3. Under ground modifications -- -   - Key Answer
Parts of a Leaf : 1. Leaf base 2. Petiole 3. Lamina -- -    - Key Answer
Leaf Venation - Reticulate, Parallel : Pinnately, Palmately -- -    - Key Answer
Leaf Modification -- -    - Key Answer
Inflorescence : Racemose, Cymose, Mixed and Special types -- -    - Key Answer
FLOWER - A Metamorphosed Shoot : Evidences to support that flower is a modified shoot -- -    - Key Answer
Description of a flower -- -    - Key Answer
Types of Placentation : Axile,Marginal, Parietal, Basal, Superficial Placentation -- -    - Key Answer
Androecium And Gynoecium -- -    - Key Answer
Plant Aestivation And Types of Aestivation -- -    - Key Answer
Corolla : Shape of the petals in the corolla and Forms of Corolla -- -    - Key Answer
Calyx : Variations and Duration of calyx -- -    - Key Answer
The receptacle (thalamus) : Variation of the Receptacle, Insertion of floral leaves on the thalamus -- -    - Key Answer
Parts of a flower -- -    - Key Answer
Fruit : Types and Structure of fruit -- -    - Key Answer
Simple fleshy fruits : baccate,drupaceous - Berry, Drupe, Hesperidium, Pepo, Pomo -- -    - Key Answer
Simple Dry Fruits - .1. Dehiscent 2. Schizocarpic 3. Indehiscent -- -    - Key Answer
aggregate and multiple or composite fruits -- -    - Key Answer
Structure and Types of Seed -- -    - Key Answer
Structure of gram seed -- -    - Key Answer
Structure of Maize Grain -- -    - Key Answer

 

UNIT IV.     GENETICS

 

GENETICS : Concept of Heredity and Variation -- -    - Key Answer
Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance -- -    - Key Answer
Intermediate Inheritance (Incomplete Dominance) -- -    - Key Answer
Epistasis - Gene Interaction -- -    - Key Answer
Inheritance Laws of Mendel -- -    - Key Answer
Biography of Mendel And Mendel's Experiments on Mendel's Laws of Inheritance -- -    - Key Answer


 

UNIT V.      PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

 

Cell as a Physiological Unit -- -    - Key Answer
Properties of Protoplasm : The Physical and Chemical Nature -- -    - Key Answer
Cell - Water Relations -- -    - Key Answer
Cells : Absorption and Movement  ? Imbibition, Diffusion -- -    - Key Answer
Demonstration of Osmosis - Potato Osmoscope -- -    - Key Answer
Plasmolysis and Significance of Plasmolysis -- -    - Key Answer
Plant Cells : Permeability and Water Potential -- -    - Key Answer
Water Transport in Plant -- -    - Key Answer
Transpiration Pull Theory in plant water transport -- -    - Key Answer
Factors Affecting Rate of Transpiration in Plant -- -    - Key Answer
Structure of Stoma and Mechanism of Stomatal Opening and Closing -- -    - Key Answer

Factors Affecting Stomatal Movement -- -    - Key Answer
Functions of Minerals Nutrition -- -    - Key Answer
Hydroponics - Advantages and Disavantagges of Hydroponics -- -    - Key Answer
Essential Major Elements and Trace Elements for Plant -- -    - Key Answer
Plant Physiological Role and Deficiency Symptoms of Mineral Elements -- -    - Key Answer
Theories of Translocation for Plant : Passive absorption and Active Absorption -- -    - Key Answer
Plant Physiology : Translocation of Solutes -- -    - Key Answer
Plant Physiology : Nitrogen Metabolism -- -    - Key Answer
Plant Movements : Movements of locomotion and curvature -- -    - Key Answer
Geotropism -- -    - Key Answer
Phototropism And Turgor Growth Movements -- -    - Key Answer


 

UNIT VI.     REPRODUCTION BIOLOGY

 

Reproduction in Angiosperms : Vegetative Propagation -- -    - Key Answer
Natural Methods of Vegetative Propagation : Root, Stem, Leaves -- -    - Key Answer
Advantages of Vegetative propagation -- -    - Key Answer
Artificial Method of Vegetative Propagation : Cuttings, Grafting -- -    - Key Answer
Reproduction in Angiosperm : Micropropagation -- -    - Key Answer
Self Pollination - Sexual Reproduction : 1. autogamy 2. geitonogamy -- -    - Key Answer
Cross Pollination (Xenogamy, Allogamy) - Sexual Reproduction -- -    - Key Answer
Development of male and female gametophyte -- -    - Key Answer
Development of female gametophyte : Megasporophyll, Megasporangium or ovule, Megasporogenesis -- -   - Key Answer
Types of Plant Ovule -- -    - Key Answer
Plant Reproduction : Double fertilization -- -    - Key Answer
Development of dicot embryo -- -    - Key Answer
Parthenogenesis and parthenocarpy -- -    - Key Answer
Germination of Seed : Parts of Seed -- -    - Key Answer
Process of seed germination -- -    - Key Answer
Types of seed germination : Epigeal, Hypogeal germination, Vivipary -- -    - Key Answer
Factors necessary for seed gamination -- -    - Key Answer
Abscission and Importance of Abscission -- -    - Key Answer
senescence : Types, Physiology , Importance of senescence -- -    - Key Answer


 

UNIT VII.   ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY

 

 

Organisms and their Environment -- -    - Key Answer
Organisms : Environmental Climatic Factors -- -    - Key Answer
Organisms : Environment : Edaphic Factors -- -    - Key Answer
Organisms : Environmental factors - Climatic, Edaphic, Biotic -- -    - Key Answer
Relationships among Organisms : Positive and Negative Interactions -- -    - Key Answer
Hydrophytes And Classification of Hydrophytes -- -    - Key Answer
Morphological and Anatomical adaptations of Hydrophytes -- -    - Key Answer
Xerophytes and Classification of Xerophytes -- -    - Key Answer
Morphological, Anatomical and Physiological Adaptations of Xerophytes -- -    - Key Answer
Mesophytes -- -    - Key Answer
natural resources and Types of natural resources -- -    - Key Answer
Sources of Energy resources -- -    - Key Answer
Conservation of Energy -- -    - Key Answer
Forest Resources -- -    - Key Answer
Social Forestry and Conservation of Forests -- -    - Key Answer
Conservation of Water and Types of Harvesting Rainwater -- -    - Key Answer

 

 

 

 

Part - 2

 

UNIT 1. TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS

TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS : Types of classification -- -    - Key Answer
Biosystematics nomenclature -- -    - Key Answer
Binomial nomenclature -- -    - Key Answer
Herbaria and uses, Importance of Herbaria -- -    - Key Answer
Bentham and Hooker ?s classification of plants : Dicotyledonae, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledonae -- -   - Key Answer
Merits and Demerits of Bentham and Hooker ?s classification of plants -- -    - Key Answer
DICOT FAMILIES : MALVACEAE - the cotton family -- -    - Key Answer
Botanical description of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis -- -    - Key Answer
FABACEAE  ? the bean family -- -    - Key Answer
Botanical description and Economical of Clitoria ternatea -- -    - Key Answer
RUBIACEAE  ? the coffee family -- -    - Key Answer
Botanical description and Economic Importance of Ixora coccinea -- -    - Key Answer
ASTERACEAE  ? the sunflower family -- -    - Key Answer
Botanical description and Economic importance of Tridax procumbens -- -    - Key Answer
SOLANACEAE  ? the potato family -- -    - Key Answer
Botanical description and Economic importance of Datura metal -- -    - Key Answer
EUPHORBIACEAE  ? the castor family -- -    - Key Answer
Botanical description and Economic importance of Ricinus communis -- -    - Key Answer
MUSACEAE - the banana family Systematic position -- -    - Key Answer
Botanical description and Economical importance of Musa paradisiaca -- -    - Key Answer
ARECACEAE  ? the palm family -- -    - Key Answer
Botanical description and Economic importance of Cocos nucifera -- -    - Key Answer

 

UNIT 2. PLANT ANATOMY

Classification and Characteristics of meristematic cells -- -    - Key Answer
Classification of permanent tissue : Simple and Complex tissue -- -    - Key Answer
Permanent Simple tissue Types : parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma -- -    - Key Answer
Permanent Complex tissue and Types : Xylem, Phloem -- -    - Key Answer
Phloem : Sieve elements, Companion cells, Phloem parenchyma, Phloem fibres -- -    - Key Answer
Epidermal tissue system and its functions -- -    - Key Answer
Vascular tissue system -- -    - Key Answer
Ground or fundamental tissue system -- -    - Key Answer
Primary structure of monocotyledonous root - Maize root -- -    - Key Answer
Primary structure of dicotyledonous root - Bean root -- -    - Key Answer
Primary structure of monocot stem - Maize stem -- -    - Key Answer
Primary structure of dicotyledonous stem - Sunflower stem -- -    - Key Answer
Anatomy of a dicot leaf - Sunflower leaf -- -    - Key Answer
Anatomy of a monocot leaf - Grass leaf -- -    - Key Answer
Secondary growth in dicot stem -- -    - Key Answer

 

UNIT 3. CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS

Structure of chromosome -- -    - Key Answer
Types of chromosomes -- -    - Key Answer
Special types of chromosomes -- -    - Key Answer
Gene and genome -- -    - Key Answer
Linkage and crossing over -- -    - Key Answer
Significance of crossing over and Uses of gene mapping -- -    - Key Answer
Recombination of chromosome -- -    - Key Answer
Gene mutation : Significance, Classification, Mutagenic agents -- -    - Key Answer
Numerical and Structural chromosomal aberrations -- -    - Key Answer
Numerical and Structural chromosomal aberrations -- -    - Key Answer
Hereditary role of DNA  ? Bacterial transformation -- -    - Key Answer
Structure of DNA -- -    - Key Answer
Function and Replication of DNA -- -    - Key Answer
Structure of RNA and its types -- -    - Key Answer
Characteristics of genetic code and Central dogma of molecular biology -- -    - Key Answer

 

UNIT 4. BIOTECHNOLOGY

Recombinant DNA technology -- -    - Key Answer
Gene transfer in plants -- -    - Key Answer
How DNA is cut? -- -    - Key Answer
Transgenic plants : foreign gene, Transgenic (modified) plants -- -    - Key Answer
Practical application of genetic transformation -- -    - Key Answer
Use of genetically engineered bacterial strain -- -    - Key Answer
Concept of Plant tissue culture -- -    - Key Answer
Applications of plant tissue culture -- -    - Key Answer
Basic techniques of plant tissue culture -- -    - Key Answer
Protoplast fusion : Isolation of protoplast - Mechanical and Enzymatic method -- -    - Key Answer
Single cell protein (SCP) -- -    - Key Answer

UNIT 5. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

Enzymes : Classification, Properties of Enzymes -- -    - Key Answer
Theories explaining the mechanism of enzyme action -- -    - Key Answer
Significance of photosynthesis -- -    - Key Answer
Site of photosynthesis -- -    - Key Answer
Photochemical and biosynthetic phases, Mechanism of photosynthesis -- -    - Key Answer
EXPERIMENTS ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS : 1.Ganong ?s light screen 2.Test tube and funnel experiment -- -    -Key Answer
Plant Mode of nutrition -- -    - Key Answer
Chemosynthesis - Chemosynthetic autotrophs and heterotrophs -- -    - Key Answer
Plant Respiration and structure of ATP -- -    - Key Answer
Plant Respiration : Glycolysis -- -    - Key Answer
Plant Respiration : Krebs cycle and Significance of Krebs cycle -- -    - Key Answer
Plant Respiration : Electron transport chain -- -    - Key Answer
Plant Respiration : Pentose phosphate pathway -- -    - Key Answer
Kuhne ?s fermentation tube experiment -- -    - Key Answer
Plant growth and Measurement of plant growth -- -    - Key Answer
auxins and Physiological effects of auxin -- -    - Key Answer
Gibberellins and Physiological effects of gibberellin -- -    - Key Answer
Physiological effects of cytokinin, ethylene, abscisic acid -- -    - Key Answer
Photoperiodism and vernalization -- -    - Key Answer

UNIT 6. BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE

BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE : Food production -- -    - Key Answer
Plant breeding : Aims, Major Aspects of plant breeding -- -    - Key Answer
Plant Breeding : Selection -- -    - Key Answer
Plant Breeding : Hybridization, Mutation breeding -- -    - Key Answer
Plant breeding : Genetic engineering -- -    - Key Answer
Role of biofertilizers and Benefits from biofertilizers -- -    - Key Answer
Plant Disease in Rice - Oryza sativa -- -    - Key Answer
Plant Tikka disease in Groundnut or peanut - Arachis hypogea -- -    - Key Answer
Citrus canker and Tungro disease of rice -- -    - Key Answer
Biopesticides and Biocontrol of insect pests -- -    - Key Answer
Genetically modified food : Edible, Edible, Edible antibodies -- -    - Key Answer
Bio-war -- -    - Key Answer
Bio-piracy -- -    - Key Answer
Bio-patent -- -    - Key Answer
Sustained agriculture -- -    - Key Answer
Medicinal plants including microbes -- -    - Key Answer
Commonly available medicinal plants and microbes -- -    - Key Answer
Economic importance Plants : Food, Rice, Oil, Fibre, Timber yielding plant -- -    - Key Answer

 

 

 

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