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Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis

Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis
   Added On :  03.06.2016 05:06 am
   Author :  RICHARD A. JOHNSON, DEAN W. WICHERN
   For :  multivariate
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Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis - RICHARD A. JOHNSON University of Wisconsin-Madison DEAN W. WICHERN Texas A&M University


Contents

1 ASPECTS OF MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Applications of Multivariate Techniques 3 1.3 The Organization of Data 5 Arrays, 5 Descriptive Statistics, 6 Graphical Techniques, 11 1.4 Data Displays and Pictorial Representations 19 Linking Multiple Two-Dimensional Scatter Plots, 20 Graphs of Growth Curves, 24 Stars, 25 Chernoff Faces, 28 1.5 Distance 30 1.6 Final Comments 38 Exercises 38 References 48 2 MATRIX ALGEBRA AND RANDOM VECTORS 2.1 Introduction 50 2.2 Some Basics of Matrix and Vector Algebra 50 Vectors, 50 Matrices, 55 2.3 Positive Definite Matrices 61 2.4 A Square-Root Matrix 66 2.5 Random Vectors and Matrices 67 2.6 Mean Vectors and Covariance Matrices 68 Partitioning the Covariance Matrix, 74 The Mean Vector and Covariance Matrix for Linear Combinations of Random Variables, 76 Partitioning the Sample Mean Vector and Covariance Matrix, 78 2.7 Matrix Inequalities and Maximization 79 XV 1 50 vii viii Contents Supplement 2A: Vectors and Matrices: Basic Concepts 84 Vectors, 84 Matrices, 89 Exercises 104 References 111 3 SAMPLE GEOMETRY AND RANDOM SAMPLING 3.1 Introduction 112 3.2 The Geometry of the Sample 112 3.3 Random Samples and the Expected Values of the Sample Mean and Covariance Matrix 120 3.4 Generalized Variance 124 Situations in which the Generalized Sample Variance Is Zero, 130 Generalized Variance Determined by I R I and Its Geometrical Interpretation, 136 Another Generalization ofVariance, 138 3.5 Sample Mean, Covariance, and Correlation As Matrix Operations 139 3.6 Sample Values of Linear Combinations of Variables 141 Exercises 145 References 148 4 THE MULTIVARIATE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION 4.1 Introduction 149 4.2 The Multivariate Normal Density and Its Properties 149 Additional Properties of the Multivariate Normal Distribution, 156 4.3 Sampling from a Multivariate Normal Distribution and Maximum Likelihood Estimation 168 The Multivariate Normal Likelihood, 168 Maximum Likelihood Estimation of JL and I, 170 Sufficient Statistics, 173 4.4 The Sampling Distribution of X and S 173 Properties of the Wishart Distribution, 174 4.5 Large-Sample Behavior of X and S 175 4.6 Assessing the Assumption of Normality 177 Evaluating the Normality of the Univariate Marginal Distributions, 178 Evaluating Bivariate Normality, 183 4.7 Detecting Outliers and Cleaning Data 189 Steps for Detecting Outliers, 190 4.8 Transformations To Near Normality 194 Transforming Multivariate Observations, 198 Exercises 202 References 209 112 149 Contents ix 5 INFERENCES ABOUT A MEAN VECTOR 5.1 Introduction 210 5.2 The Plausibility of Ito as a Value for a Normal Population Mean 210 5.3 Hotelling's T 2 and Likelihood Ratio Tests 216 General Likelihood Ratio Method, 219 5.4 Confidence Regions and Simultaneous Comparisons of Component Means 220 Simultaneous Confidence Statements, 223 A Comparison of Simultaneous Confidence Intervals with One-at-a-Time Intervals, 229 The Bonferroni Method of Multiple Comparisons, 232 5.5 Large Sample Inferences about a Population Mean Vector 234 5.6 Multivariate Quality Control Charts 239 Charts for Monitoring a Sample of Individual Multivariate Observations for Stability, 241 Control Regions for Future Individual Observations, 247 Control Ellipse for Future Observations, 248 T 2 -Chart for Future Observations, 248 Control Charts Based on Subsample Means, 249 Control Regions for Future Subsample Observations, 251 5.7 Inferences about Mean Vectors when Some Observations Are Missing 252 5.8 Difficulties Due to Time Dependence in Multivariate Observations 256 Supplement SA: Simultaneous Confidence Intervals and Ellipses as Shadows of the p-Dimensional Ellipsoids 258 Exercises 260 References 270 6 COMPARISONS OF SEVERAL MULTIVARIATE MEANS 6.1 Introduction 272 6.2 Paired Comparisons and a Repeated Measures Design 272 Paired Comparisons, 272 A Repeated Measures Design for Comparing Treatments, 278 6.3 Comparing Mean Vectors from Two Populations 283 Assumptions Concerning the Structure of the Data, 283 Further Assumptions when n1 and n2 Are Small, 284 Simultaneous Confidence Intervals, 287 The Two-Sample Situation when, 290 6.4 Comparing Several Multivariate Population Means (One-Way Manova) 293 Assumptions about the Structure of the Data for One-way MAN OVA, 293 A Summary of Univariate AN OVA, 293 Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MAN OVA), 298 210 272 x Contents 6.5 Simultaneous Confidence Intervals for Treatment Effects 305 6.6 Two-Way Multivariate Analysis of Variance 307 Univariate Two-Way Fixed-Effects Model with Interaction, 307 Multivariate Two-Way Fixed-Effects Model with Interaction, 309 6.7 Profile Analysis 318 6.8 Repeated Measures Designs and Growth Curves 323 6.9 Perspectives and a Strategy for Analyzing Multivariate Models 327 Exercises 332 References 352 7 MULTIVARIATE LINEAR REGRESSION MODELS 7.1 Introduction 354 7.2 The Classical Linear Regression Model 354 7.3 Least Squares Estimation 358 Sum-of-Squares Decomposition, 360 Geometry of Least Squares, 361 Sampling Properties of Classical Least Squares Estimators, 363 7.4 Inferences About the Regression Model 365 Inferences Concerning the Regression Parameters, 365 Likelihood Ratio Tests for the Regression Parameters, 370 7.5 Inferences from the Estimated Regression Function 374 Estimating the Regression Function at z0, 374 Forecasting a New Observation at z0, 375 7.6 Model Checking and Other Aspects of Regression 377 Does the Model Fit?, 377 Leverage and Influence, 380 Additional Problems in Linear Regression, 380 7.7 Multivariate Multiple Regression 383 Likelihood Ratio Tests for Regression Parameters, 392 Other Multivariate Test Statistics, 395 Predictions from Multivariate Multiple Regressions, 395 7.8 The Concept of Linear Regression 398 Prediction of Several Variables, 403 Partial Correlation Coefficient, 406 7.9 Comparing the Two Formulations of the Regression Model 407 Mean Corrected Form of the Regression Model, 407 Relating the Formulations, 409 7.10 Multiple Regression Models with Time Dependent Errors 410 Supplement 7 A: The Distribution of the Likelihood Ratio for the Multivariate Multiple Regression Model 415 Exercises 417 References 424 354 Contents xi 8 PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS 8.1 Introduction 426 8.2 Population Principal Components 426 Principal Components Obtained from Standardized Variables, 432 Principal Components for Covariance Matrices with Special Structures, 435 8.3 Summarizing Sample Variation by Principal Components 437 The Number of Principal Components, 440 Interpretation of the Sample Principal Components, 444 Standardizing the Sample Principal Components, 445 8.4 Graphing the Principal Components 450 8.5 Large Sample Inferences A 452 Large Sample Properties of Ai and ej, 452 Testing for the Equal Correlation Structure, 453 8.6 Monitoring Quality with Principal Components 455 Checking a Given Set of Measurements for Stability, 455 Controlling Future Values, 459 Supplement 8A: The Geometry of the Sample Principal Component Approximation 462 The p-Dimensional Geometrical Interpretation, 464 The n-Dimensional Geometrical Interpretation, 465 Exercises 466 References 475 9 FACTOR ANALYSIS AND INFERENCE FOR STRUCTURED COVARIANCE MATRICES 9.1 Introduction 477 9.2 The Orthogonal Factor Model 478 9.3 Methods of Estimation 484 The Principal Component (and Principal Factor) Method, 484 A Modified Approach-the Principal Factor Solution, 490 The Maximum Likelihood Method, 492 A Large Sample Test for the Number of Common Factors, 498 9.4 Factor Rotation 501 Oblique Rotations, 509 9.5 Factor Scores 510 The Weighted Least Squares Method, 511 The Regression Method, 513 9.6 Perspectives and a Strategy for Factor Analysis 517 9.7 Structural Equation Models 524 The LISREL Model, 525 Construction of a Path Diagram, 525 Covariance Structure, 526 Estimation, 527 Model-Fitting Strategy, 529 426 477 xii Contents Supplement 9A: Some Computational Details for Maximum Likelihood Estimation 530 Recommended Computational Scheme, 531 Maximum Likelihood Estimators of p = LzL'z + \flz, 532 Exercises 533 References 541 10 CANONICAL CORRELATION ANALYSIS 10.1 Introduction 543 10.2 Canonical Variates and Canonical Correlations 543 10.3 Interpreting the Population Canonical Variables 551 Identifying the Canonical Variables, 551 Canonical Correlations as Generalizations of Other Correlation Coefficients, 553 The First r Canonical Variables as a Summary of Variability, 554 A Geometrical Interpretation of the Population Canonical Correlation Analysis 555 10.4 The Sample Canonical Variates and Sample Canonical Correlations 556 10.5 Additional Sample Descriptive Measures 564 Matrices of Errors of Approximations, 564 Proportions of Explained Sample Variance, 567 10.6 Large Sample Inferences 569 Exercises 573 References 580 11 DISCRIMINATION AND CLASSIFICATION 11.1 Introduction 581 11.2 Separation and Classification for Two Populations 582 11.3 Classification with Two Multivariate Normal Populations 590 Classification of Normal Populations When I1 = I2 = I, 590 Scaling, 595 Classification of Normal Populations When I1 #:- I2, 596 11.4 Evaluating Classification Functions 598 11.5 Fisher's Discriminant Function-Separation of Populations 609 11.6 Classification with Several Populations 612 The Minimum Expected Cost of Misclassification Method, 613 Classification with Normal Populations, 616 11.7 Fisher's Method for Discriminating among Several Populations 628 Using Fisher's Discriminants to Classify Objects, 635 11.8 Final Comments 641 Including Qualitative Variables, 641 Classification Trees, 641 Neural Networks, 644 543 581 Selection ofVariables, 645 Testing for Group Differences, 645 Graphics, 646 Practical Considerations Regarding Multivariate Normality, 646 Exercises 647 References 666 12 CLUSTERING, DISTANCE METHODS, AND ORDINATION 12.1 Introduction 668 12.2 Similarity Measures 670 Distances and Similarity Coefficients for Pairs of Items, 670 Similarities and Association Measures for Pairs ofVariables, 676 Concluding Comments on Similarity, 677 12.3 Hierarchical Clustering Methods 679 Single Linkage, 681 Complete Linkage, 685 Average Linkage, 689 Ward's Hierarchical Clustering Method, 690 Final Comments-Hierarchical Procedures, 693 12.4 Nonhierarchical Clustering Methods 694 K-means Method, 694 Final Comments-Nonhierarchical Procedures, 698 12.5 Multidimensional Scaling 700 The Basic Algorithm, 700 12.6 Correspondence Analysis 709 Algebraic Development of Correspondence Analysis, 711 Inertia, 718 Interpretation in Two Dimensions, 719 Final Comments, 719 12.7 Biplots for Viewing San1pling Units and Variables 719 Constructing Biplots, 720 12.8 Procrustes Analysis: A Method for Comparing Configurations 723 Constructing the Procrustes Measure of Agreement, 724 Supplement 12A: Data Mining 731 Introduction, 731 The Data Mining Process, 732 Model Assessment, 733 Exercises 738 References 7 45 APPENDIX DATA INDEX SUBJECT INDEX Contents xiii 668 748 758 761 

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